Country Profiles

Tropical Forest and Biodiversity Analyses

The U.S. Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961, as amended by Sections 118 and 119, requires that all USAID Missions conduct a periodic country analysis of the conservation and sustainable use of tropical forests and biological diversity. Specifically, FAA Sections 118 and 119 require that all country development strategies include:

  1. an analysis of the actions necessary in that country to achieve conservation and sustainable management of tropical forests (118) and conserve biological diversity (119)
  2. the extent to which current or proposed USAID actions meet those needs.

By mandating these analyses, Congress is recognizing the fundamental role that tropical forests and the conservation of biodiversity play in sustainable development.


All USAID missions conduct Biodiversity Analyses in support of strategic planning for all sectors, often in conjunction with a Tropical Forest Analysis (if relevant to the country). Some missions conduct these as part of a broader environmental assessment considering climate change issues and opportunities, pollution, soil and water quality, and other environmental factors.


These analyses have a number of benefits to USAID Missions. Information from reviews carried out to satisfy Sections 118 and 119 provides useful background for setting conservation priorities and targets, and selecting the scale and sites at which to work. It also helps to identify threats, stakeholders, and potential partners. Section 118 and 119 analyses are also used to plan programs advancing economic growth, food security, public health, democracy and good governance.

Governments, foundations, civil society and private sector organizations are invited to make use of these high-quality resources to inform their own conservation and development planning.


A database of Tropical Forest and Biodiversity Analyses is currently under development. In the meantime, examples can be found here.


This new guide is designed to help procure and conduct Tropical Forest and Biodiversity Analyses that more effectively encourage all sectors to consider, value and in some cases support biodiversity and forest conservation.

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